So the end of the semester is here, and I’ll be the first to say that I learned more than I thought I would. Not only this, but I also learned that there are so many more things to learn as well. It’s amazing how many different technological tools there are to use, and it’s safe to say it’s overwhelming when you try and consider each and every one of them. I think the most important thing I gathered from learning about the different technological tools is to pick out the ones that could be the most help to your classroom. For example, there are some that could work for an English class, but not for a math class and vice-versa. This is a good segue into my final project, which was over Noodle Tools. This particular technological tool is great for helping students learn to how cite different websites. Citation, references and bibliography can be a very confusing thing, especially when you consider all the different styles, as well as the fact that different teachers, schools and school districts prefer different methods. One school could prefer MLA, while another could prefer APA. Some might even prefer Chicago, not to mention the teacher’s preference. Noodle Tools helps students along with the proper way to cite. One of the things I love about Noodle Tools is the fact that I wish I had this as a high school student. I believed as a student, as well as currently as a future educator, that the focus and effort should go into producing a well written paper. Students shouldn’t have to fret over losing points pertaining to an incorrectly written citation or reference page. Conversely, as a teacher I would hate to deduct points away from a student if they provide the source but didn’t cite correctly. I feel that it is unfair and a waste of brain power. Now, that’s not to say I don’t believe that proper citation and references aren’t important. It’s paramount that things are done correctly this way. What I’m against is the way we teach them the different styles, because most of the time they are tedious, and above all boring. Learning shouldn’t be boring, it should be engaging. Monotonous listing of sources is not engaging. Noodle Tools helps students get on the correct pathway to citing correctly. Another great feature of Noodle Tools is the organization, as well as the connectivity power between student and teacher. Visiting the Noodle Tools assignment page, they have every tool at your fingertips immediately. No searching for anything, but rather students can easily access it. They can search for projects that teachers have created and tailor their work towards completing the project correctly. In the teacher settings, they have an inbox; as well as a message center so students can turn in assignments as well as communicate with them easier. Teachers also have the ability to check to see how many times a student has visited Noodle Tools, so they are aware if students have used the resources given to them. Noodle Tools is also very well regarded amongst teachers and librarians. The librarians at Omaha Central, where I had my practicum, raved about the accessibility and the usefulness of Noodle Tools, as well as some of the teachers I talked to. I got help navigating the site from one teacher, while a class I was involved with was given a tour of the site themselves. So it was obvious that the administrators felt strongly about this tool to present to the students as a positive. While observing the students use Noodle Tools, it did not surprise me that they were navigating through the site with general ease. There weren’t any urgent questions or puzzled looks on their faces. All in all, Noodle Tools seems to be the future of citing sources, resulting in seemingly being more popular than Easy Bib, a similar program. The most important part of my learning experience through TLDE was the fact that not only do you need to know how to use many different tools, you need to stay on top of your game. Our Twitter posts every week was a good example. I needed to learn how to use a program I’ve never used before, as well as how to properly navigate through it. TweetDeck was an awesome way to stay connected with Dr. Campbell, as well as other classmates. The connectivity with this was unmatched. I don’t honestly think I could compare this learning experience with any other I’ve had a UNO, high school or Wichita State, where I got my first undergrad. Technology has advanced so much; it was obvious that administrators felt the need to create an entire class pertaining to it. Therefore, it was unmatched in the experience category. Having class on Saturday, something I’ve never had before was another eye opening experience. It was odd being in class on a weekend, but it made me appreciate the class more because it felt like it stood alone. Other things I have learned from this experience is to learn from your peers. Scrolling through TweetDeck, I realize that there are many more people in the class know much more than I, so it’s important to pay attention when they speak or Tweet on TweetDeck. My hope is that I can keep in touch with some classmates, allowing me to see the different technological strategies they will use in the classroom that I could use as well. TweetDeck has really opened my eyes to the connectivity and organization of Twitter. I have had many different people in the education world follow me, or send me a message wanting to connect because they see we have the same things in common. I plan on continuing to use TweetDeck throughout my teaching career. Finally, my plan of use will be determined in the future as I learn different methods of teaching and assessment. There are so many things I have learned, it’s near impossible to say how many of them I will take advantage of. However, things like TweetDeck, Twitter and the connectivity to people that have the same educational interests as me is probably the biggest thing I plan to use as my education about the teaching world grows. I hope to take along many more things as I move along in school, and it’s important to stay up to speed on cutting edge technology so I will be prepared in this ever changing 21st century. I would like to thank Dr. Campbell for being kind, as well as incredibly helpful when answering my technologically illiterate questions.
The last three readings we did for our TLDE Class were great, simply for the fact that they encapsulated what the class was all about. It was a kind of a full circle-type reading session. This class has always been about technology and how we can implement it in the classroom. Cynthia Selfe’s article titled “Technology and Literacy: A Story about the Perils of Not Paying Attention” presented a history of technology in the classroom and the problems we still face in making it accessible to children from all races and backgrounds. The article especially alluded to the Clinton/Gore administration in June of 1996 and how they put a premium of computers in the classroom; and how they believed that every child needed access to a computer. The Secretary of Education at the time, Richard Riley, spearheaded this movement at the time expected to cost up to $109 billion. This would come from a variety of sources at the national, state and local levels. While many states started to implement this, we quickly saw how it drained resources from other areas of schools. Districts had to cut aid to schools, yet spend $10 million on classroom computers. Other districts in parts of the country dropped teaching positions in music, art and physical education yet spent hundreds of thousands on computers. It was not only the computers that they were spending the money on; it was the supplemental tools that went along with it as well. Instructional materials, maintenance, refurbishment of old computers, infrastructure, hardware and software purchases and establishing networks all cost money as well. This wasn’t a case of just buying computers and presenting them to students and telling them “now get technologically literate,” it was a whole process that would take years and lots of money to implement. The question years later naturally turned to how well did it work? That just depends on who you ask. One aspect you must look at is how are these computers and resources being distributed? If you get “x” amount of computers and resource tools but a disproportionate amount of schools, how do you spread the wealth? According to the article, computers still continue to be distributed differentially among the related axes of race and socioeconomic status. The article states that it’s a fact “that schools primarily serving students of color and poor students continue to have less access to computers, and access to less sophisticated computer equipment than do schools primarily serving more affluent and white students (Coley et al. 3).” This inequality could prove to have disastrous consequences for students that fall farther behind the eight-ball in terms of opportunities. We obviously live in an extremely fast technologically paced professional world, and if Black or Hispanic students aren’t up to speed by the time they enter the working world, this puts them at a disadvantage compared to a white student who had used a computer from elementary school. If this is something that sounds hard to believe, it isn’t; and the statistics don’t lie. The trickle down effects include white’s being significantly more likely than African American’s to have a home computer in their household (73% of whites have them compared to 32% of African Americans). Not only this, but if white students don’t have a computer at home and African Americans do, they are accessing one from the home a friend or relative, library or community center. This show’s that white students could possibly be taught how to better use their resources around them. No matter what way we look at the statistics and what we interpret from them, as well as find ways to fix problems, it all boils down to improving educational literacy. This is something the article believes is a political act. As the Clinton administration prepared to take over in 1992, they had targeted technology as a key factor in domestic and international economic policies. The country was facing issues in manufacturing and productivity, persistent poverty, and an increase in the gap between the rich and the poor. The implementation and education of technological literacy was the target to inject new vigor into the domestic economy. The administration believed this would be a deciding factor into how their administration would be viewed; how their legacy would be cemented. This article was quick to remind us that the implementation, or rather the proper implementation, of technology in the classroom in essence was a small pawn on a giant global chessboard. You move the rooks to get to the queen. If you lose a few of them, who cares as long as you get to your goal? That’s ultimately where I believe the disproportion of technology education in America had been distributed. Enough of the depressing reality of it though, and lets turn our attention to the other articles we read, which fall in line more with how our class has been operated all semester. In the article “Students Respect the Badge,” it alludes to how Dr. Campbell has been allowing us to use our blog posts. The audience is not so much about her, but it is the classroom. Students write the blogs and rest of the class comments on it. I agree wholeheartedly with the author’s stance on effort. I personally write these blogs to the best of my ability, but I am cognizant to the fact that my classmates, who are a much larger audience than just Dr. Campbell, will be reading and critiquing my work. I also have a duty to write thoughtful blog entries simply for the fact that I must give everyone something to comment on. It can’t be boring or general; I must provide a richly-written piece that can initiate a good virtual conversation. Dr. Campbell obviously doesn’t use badges, but maybe it would be more fun. This is something that the next article, titled “Why Gamification?” alludes to, as well as the end of “Students Respect the Badge.” According to the article, handing out badges promotes a continuing of education among students. Grades promote a discontinuation of learning once the students know they have a good, solid grade. Conversely, it might discourage a student from learning if they have low grades. They might give up. Gamification, or the use of game-design elements for a non-game purpose, uses badges that the author believes works because it marks progress or achievements without stopping forward momentum. Even though I’ve never personally seen this done, I think it’s an intriguing way of rewarding or encouraging students. It also eliminates the grade-hunters, or the students just interested in the letter grade that don’t actually try and learn something. This could be especially useful in college, where GPA rules above all. You would just need to find a way to refine it. One of the first things I think of when I think of badging is how child-like it might seem. You would have to find a way to make it adult-like so college students take it seriously. In conclusion, these three articles encapsulate what our course was about, and I’m excited to take the perspective of technology in the classroom and use it for the future.
The group of readings that were to be done for November was full of irony, simply for the fact that it focused purely on technology and how teachers learn and develop it in their classroom. Ipads were another big focus, as well as GoPro’s. The thing I loved about each article is how well they played off each other, even if at first glance three of the readings: “Snowfall,’ ‘The New York Times Fights Snowfall Fatigue With More Snow Falls-And It’s Working,’ and ‘A Game of Shark and Minnow,” didn’t fit with the two longer readings, “How Teachers Learn and Develop,” and “Exploring The Use Of The IPad For Literacy Learning.” However, once you explored the sites the previously mentioned readings were on, you realized that the way they are set up is due to some of this technology that is spoken of in the longer readings. It all blends together nicely.
The first reading that really sets a good tone is “How Teachers Learn and Develop,” by Hammerness, among others. These readings were divided into multiple sections, however some stood out more than others. One that really caught my eye was “Teaching Strategies and Efficiency Versus Innovation.” According to the text, “Teaching strategies vary according to the degree to which they emphasize the innovation versus efficiency dimensions.” Some educators push for strategies that are highly scripted to promote consistency, but others argue that teaching needs to be highly interactive and needs to change and vary depending on the needs of each student. I believe that these educators that only want to follow a script need to find a new occupation because technology is affecting innovations and interaction. The world is an interactive environment and educators need to be on the forefront. But it’s not just as easy as assuming that since there is so many technological tools out there that it makes teaching it to students easier. Educators still need to be able to get through to students, some of whom may know more than you about certain devices. According to the text, “A principle of learning that is extremely important for helping teachers become adaptive experts who can manage complexity involves the concept of metacognition-or the ability to think about one’s own thinking.” This is an important concept to be aware of, especially when implementing technology into a classroom. You must think to yourself if the students already know a lot about what you’re teaching and if there’s a better way. Technology changes and so should your metacognition. The reading is quick to remind the readers that new teachers develop knowledge about teaching, students, culture, development and other things like subject matter over time. It’s important to keep in mind to always keep up with the changes in the technology world, and you will be better suited to keep up with it in the classroom.
That reading flows right into the next reading, titled “Exploring the Use of the Ipad for Literacy Learning.” Much like metacognition, teaching strategies and innovation, this article speaks in depth about “Integrating Digital Technologies.” According to the text, “integrating digital technologies into literacy instruction and equipping students with the new literacy skills needed for reading, writing and communicating in digital environments is already a priority for many literacy teachers.” Some struggle, but it’s important to be aware of the need to do so. Ipad’s are at the forefront of integrating technology and are shaping how teachers strategize and innovate their classroom management, simply because they are so incredibly versatile. Teachers are taking simple activities usually done on a piece of paper and transferring it on to the Ipad. Take for example a teacher named Mrs. Dill who decided to focus on the reading comprehension strategy of visualization. She decided to use and app called Doodle Buddy that students could use to draw their illustrations. Instead of the classic worksheet where students would have to draw with pen or pencil, Doodle Buddy allowed them to create a drawing that accurately conveyed their meaning. So not only is this more efficient, but according to the article students loved using it. The app also encouraged students to reread their text and edit their work. Other students even wanted to experiment with the different tools for other purposes. Ipad’s don’t come without their pitfalls. Manipulation can be difficult with some apps, especially the nuts and bolts of some of the programs. Sensitive touchscreens that prematurely allow students to choose something, troubleshooting and difficulty creating word documents are some of the other complaints and hassles with Ipad’s. But overall, they are an incredibly large force that is becoming more and more evident that they will be driving education one day.
So you teach students all this technology; how to navigate through websites and create different animations and movements and other things that would leave adults in the technological dust. The remaining readings are shining examples of the future of websites. Personally, I had some problems navigating through some of them, simply because they are so stimulating. Taking a look at “A Game of Shark and Minnow,” it’s amazing how the site is put together. It has sound and the water is even moving. All the pictures are HD, there’s even a page where a guy is searching with a flashlight. There’s interaction as well, such as when you’re searching the map and it moves as you’re trying to find things. “Snowfall” is similar and just as stimulating. These are the websites of the future. Some claim that they are bad for the web and bad for the readers, but nonetheless they are evolutionary. It even says at the top of the last reading that The New York Times is perfecting is multimedia design, and these websites are examples of it. Print newspapers are quickly becoming a thing of the past. People are turning to their computers for the news, and have been for quite some time. However, people are going to eventually want something more than just words on a screen. These kinds of websites and articles keep people, especially young readers, interested and stimulated.
As a culmination of the readings, these websites that have tons of stimuli are the future of news stories. The quicker we can get students up to speed and used to using devices like Ipad’s, the quicker students can create websites and more importantly, use them and others that are being created. It’s just as important to teach them how to navigate through as to how you can possibly create one. As educators, we must stay on the cutting edge of technology, attempting to remain one step ahead. In conclusion, it all hearkens back to the first article I read about how teachers are learning, developing, integrating and innovating. The sooner educators get on board and efficiently teaching these things, the sooner we can send students out into the world that are producing these kinds of things, as well as understanding and navigating through them.
The latest batch of readings delved even deeper into technology in the classroom. An important topic that was constantly brought up in each of the documents was Twitter, as well as the identities of individuals that create different social media accounts and what they are trying to convey to the rest of the world. It’s no secret that Twitter is currently dominating the social media world. It’s changing the way people communicate as well as how people obtain news and other important sources of information. It’s even changing the face of education, with some teachers embracing the stranglehold that social media is beginning to have on society. In Suzie Boss’ article “Twittering, Not Frittering: Professional Development in 140 characters,” David Cosand, an elementary school teacher in Oregon, claims that Twitter is one of the best sources of real-time professional development. The term “microblogging” is an important concept to grasp because combines the features of blogging, text messaging and social networking. Twitter is an easy to use tool that is a quick way to network with colleagues, allowing them to share resources, learn from experts and react to events on the fly. Education chats have also become an important resource for teachers. These create communities that educators can partake in that allow them to gain valuable information. Topics such as general education chats, content-area chats, grade-level chats and organization-sponsored chats are changing the way educators obtain teaching lessons.
So how do educators streamline Twitter in to a pedagogical tool? Instructional Designer Rick Reo of George Mason University has created a “Twitter Adoption Matrix” to help speed along the process. By using this vertical/horizontal pedagogical device, Twitter can be used as an effective one-way communication tool for sharing new or broadcasting links, used in class as a two-way backchannel, or as a platform for reflective thinking, asking students at the end of class to sum up the most valuable lesson of the day. Other educators are taking advantage of Twitter in the classroom as well. In an article by Brian Croxall called “Reflections on Teaching with Social Media,” he believes that teaching humanities students to use different tools like Twitter teach them transferrable skills. It’s for thematic, practical and of course, pedagogical reasons. In three out of four classes he taught in a semester, he claimed that all the students conceded that Twitter became a useful tool for corresponding with one other about assignments or work. He was very pleased with the project and he would continue to make use of Twitter tools for in class sharing of information. He also mentions how he would incorporate using it during lessons he would be teaching; treating it as a presumed “live reaction.” Mark Sample agrees with this sentiment in “Twitter is a Snark Valve,” claiming that he encourages students to use Twitter during class, resulting in “snarky” comments from them. The tweets are unfiltered, creating back-of-the-classroom tittering that turns into backchannel Twittering.
This new wave of technology is not always the easiest to understand, nor has it been welcomed with open arms. Croxall used other programs in his classroom with mixed results. Google Wave, for instance, was difficult to implement due to many website errors where students weren’t receiving pertinent information. Zotero was revered by him, but his students had mixed reviews of its usefulness. When considering Twitter, some educators are turned off by the personal chatter; citing irrelevant personal information that people like to post. This can cloud up goals educators have when using Twitter, with some saying it’s simply one more distraction in a tech-saturated world. Something that we will be doing as a class this semester, the “Flipped Classroom,” is another technological way to educating students. This is basically the idea where students learn from videos and media sources from websites like YouTube. This sounds good and easy, but some say that this is simply an ideology, not a methodology, and a flipped classroom adds an extra hour of class for every hour of class a student has.
So it’s obvious that technology in the classroom is a mixed bag among educators. This is probably due to the clash of “old-school” vs. “new-school” educators. This is discussed in great length in the article by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown. According to them, we are entering a phenomenon call the “new culture of learning,” that addresses the issue of moving from the stable infrastructure of the twentieth century to the fluid infrastructure of the twenty-first century, where technology is constantly creating and responding to change. There are certain frameworks that we need to make sense of learning in a world of constant change. The first is a massive information network that provides almost unlimited access and resources to learn about anything. The second is a bounded and structured environment that allows for unlimited agency to build and experiment with things within those boundaries. What it boils down to is the combination of the two, as well as the interplay between them, that makes the new culture of learning so powerful. Take a farmer for example. He takes the nearly unlimited resources of sun, wind, earth, water and biology and consolidates them into the bounded and structured environment of a garden or farm. The new culture of learning is similar to this cultivation process, but we’re cultivating minds instead of plants. What is so great about the world we live in today is the endless amount of resources that we have at our fingertips to take education to a level that we have never seen before. The challenge we currently face is to streamline information and technology into a mainline of pedagogical power.
There is another problem that education, as well as the professional world is currently facing. What i’m talking about is the notion of “identity,” and this is talked in great detail in “Identity, why to teens seem strange online?” The article speaks of “collapsed contexts and invisible audiences” that are part of a teenagers everyday life, because just like journalists and politicians, teens imagine the audience they’re trying to reach, and how they don’t want to be misinterpreted or brought down a notch lower. Teens must grapple who can see their Facebook, Myspace or anything of the sort, who does see it and how those that see it will interpret it. For example, a teenager might say one thing online, but might represent something totally different in real life. Teenagers sometimes treat the internet as something they can hide behind and retain a sense of anonymity, but not realize that they can’t have their cake and eat it too. They also treat it as a fantasy world as well. Take “avatars” in a game for instance. An “avatar” is a character you can create for gaming purposes that can represent something that you are not. If you are fat and out of shape but wish to be skinny and lean, you might make your avatar skinny and lean. A big problem all of this poses is how the professional world puts a lot of stock in your online activity. You might interview to get into a prestigious school or for an important job, and you better believe that the higher ups at these institutions will be searching your Facebook profile or your Twitter account. One thing that has a lot of gray area, however, is if what you represent online is who you really are. Some say representing yourself a certain way online, especially those in bad situations, can be a form of a “survival technique.” This is ultimately up to the institution that you are trying to associate yourself with, but it’s always important to maintain a sense of integrity. This includes not misrepresenting yourself to put yourself at a disadvantage.
In conclusion, the world is a rapidly changing pace. It’s best to accept all the technological changes that are happening with open arms and attempt to channel them into useful techniques for your classroom. At the same time, it’s also important to educate young students on the pitfalls of social media and how it could negatively affect their life, especially if they are trying to be one person in real life and someone totally different online.
In the seven readings we did for the first week, each one talked about many different things that pertained to rules, teaching, pedagogy and knowledge of a rapidly changing technological world that people are constantly adjusting to. Each article intertwined with each other on different levels, however the one article that was written that acted as an umbrella to the rest of them was “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants” by Mark Prensky. This article brings up many good points about how digital natives, or currently the “N-Gen,” are born into technology; even going as far as to say their brains are built differently than digital immigrants, who were born before the technological boom and have to adjust even more to the ever changing technological world. I believe this to be absolutely true. At age 32, I still remember taking typing classes, as well as an internet web building course when I was a senior in high school. Digital natives are among the first generations to grow up around new technology, and while I’m not aware of the current classes being offered at local high schools, I would bet money that none of these courses are offered anymore.
As digital natives begin to flood higher level schooling and even workplaces, many challenges face digital immigrants. The NCTE (National Council of Teachers of English) has even changed their outlook on literacy. This notion has always been a simple collection of communicative practices that is common among members of particular groups. In the ever changing 21st century, to be considered literate you must possess a wide range of abilities and competencies. This is, and not confined to, possessing proficiency and fluency with tools of technology, designing and sharing information for global communities and creating multimedia texts. To help these so called “immigrants” along, the NCTE has created a code of best practices in fair use for media literacy education. This is meant to help educators using media literacy concepts and techniques to interpret the copyright doctrine of fair use. This is especially useful for teachers in the classrooms that are trying to keep up with students who are incredibly gifted at using today’s technology. For example, one code explains the limitations students have in using copyrighted materials in their schoolwork. It states copyrighted material should not be a substitute for creative effort. This is an important thing to think about when considering the sheer amount of information, graphics and even schoolwork that is available to students on the immeasurable size of the internet. Google has made it easy for students to access virtually anything that they need to write a paper or research a topic. Gone are the days of sitting in the library, looking through endless lines of index cards to find information on a topic you are about to write a paper on. Not only is that information available at the click of a button, but the paper you are trying to write can be yours if you come across the right website.
As a result of all of this convenience, a giant problem facing digital immigrants in schools is “plagiarizing.” This is of course the act of taking someone else’s work and claiming it is your own. The root of the problem is that digital natives are getting better at hiding their plagiarizing, and it’s up to the immigrants to stay privy to their falsities. So why do students plagiarize? For one it’s becoming increasingly easier. One appealing thing about plagiarizing is the fact that in the online world, one can feel lone, and as a result, very powerful. This can often be an illusion, as anything you do on the internet can be traced back to you. However, when you need to get something done and you can basically write your paper by cutting and pasting, one gets a feeling that since there is endless amounts of information on the web, no one will catch them. It is also easy to change around a few words here and there to make it look like the work was done by you. The appropriation of a paragraph can be attained by merely the movement of a mouse. Another reason students are drawn to plagiarizing is the healthy amount of work and deadlines put forth by teachers or professors. It’s only natural for some students to feel the need to plagiarize when they need to finish a paper by 8 am the next morning, and it’s 11 pm and they are only a quarter of the way through. Desperation, combined with the drunken notion of invincibility due to the immeasurable vastness of the web by a student, can often times lead to plagiarizing; whether it be a simple paragraph or two or an entire paper.
As bad as plagiarizing can be in schools, the immigrants are doing their best to catch up with the natives. One tool they use to combat plagiarizing is turnitin.com. Papers that are turned in to this service are scanned for passages copied or paraphrased from web pages or many different papers. It has become massively popular, but just like everything that sounds too good to be true, it has encountered some problems. One is the loss of trust between teacher and pupil. If the students know the instructor is using this site, they are essentially “guilty until proven innocent.” This can create an unstable learning environment, and dangerous precedents are set on expectations. Since the database of turnitin.com is made up of a good amount of student papers, theirs are being used as comparisons. As a result, their intellectual products are being used as a resource. Students give formal consent to use, but it can hardly be considered genuine since it’s out of their control after agreeing.
Another important topic when considering plagiarism is the notion of “accidental” plagiarizing. The article we read on readerswonderland.com considered this as an actual thing. A professor might discount these as lies when students claim that they “accidentally” plagiarized their paper, but when you consider phenomenon’s such as “Cryptomnesia,” which is what happens when your brains finds a really good idea but doesn’t bother remember that it’s not yours, their claim might be reconsidered. This notion is strengthened considering the overall weariness that immigrants are experiencing due to the amount of gray area that can exist when claiming that a student plagiarized a paper. In Barry Gilmore’s piece “Write From Wrong,” chemistry teacher Mark Page, who heads the disciplinary committee at his school, grows more tired by the day, claiming that plagiarizing cases are growing substantially every year.
The solution to shrinking the divide between digital natives and immigrants is to utilize TPACK (Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge). This framework is critical to effective teaching with technology. The more knowledge teachers have of technology, how to teach it and how to effectively integrate it into their classroom, the easier time they will have adjusting to digital natives. The general message of our readings was that the technological divide between immigrants and natives cannot get too wide. There are many things being done to make sure this doesn’t happen, but it’s up to the immigrants to make sure that they, or I should say “we,” continue on this path. I for one feel like and immigrant, and these are perfect sets of readings to begin this course. I feel like what we learn in this class will be paramount to my future as a teacher, and what I need to do to keep up with these natives.